Friday, February 14, 2020

Qatar Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5250 words

Qatar - Research Paper Example Qatar experienced a troubled past with the country being at the centre of various territorial disputes in which neighboring countries attempted to claim Qatar as their own. Furthermore, Qatar was imposed upon and even ruled by foreign powers such as the Ottoman Empire and Britain. Qatar finally became fully independent on the 3rd of September 19712. Independence brought about a stabilizing factor in the country’s political, economical and social affairs. This allowed for Qatar to transform itself from a poor and corrupted state into an economically wealthy, politically stable and socially developing country. In the past, Qatar’s economy relied heavily on pearling and fishing; however, after the 1940s oil and gas reserves were discovered which helped develop the country’s economy. Qatar is now one of the richest states in the Gulf as it continues to provide the world with the scarce resources of oil and gas. Due to Qatar’s increasing international value, po werful nations such as Iran and the U.S.A have become interested in Qatar and now undertake extensive trade with the country. The assignment will focus on Qatar’s importance among the Gulf Cooperation Council’s [GCC] states and how Qatar’s present position impacts upon these states and the Arabian Peninsula as a whole. ... 2. EARLY HISTORY Qatar has a rich and vibrant account of ancient history, which displays the strategic importance of the area; as well as, what the land and people had to offer. Archaeological evidence suggests that Qatar has been inhabited since before the sixth millennium B.C., making it one of the fifteen states which formed the so-called cradle of humanity3. An ancient site was discovered at Shagra on the South-East of Qatar which displayed the importance of the sea to the land and its people for survival. Other findings of stone tools and pottery at Al-Khore, Bir Zekrit and Ras Abaruk reveal that Qatar was closely linked to the Al-Ubaid civilization which was dominant in the fifth and fourth millennium B.C. in the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates4. In the second and third millennium, during the Bronze Age, Qatar became a trade hub; for, it was en route from Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley settlements of India5. In the middle of the second Millennium B.c., Kassite of the Zagros Mountains obtained power over Babylon and then continued to spread its influence through the region of the gulf. Qatar and Babylon had strong ties during this time as revealed by the discovery of Kassite ceramics on a small Island on the bay of Al-Khore in the north of Doha6. During the Persian Sasanid Empire, the Arabian Gulf, in particular the ports of Qatar became a major hub for trade as it linked the East and the West. Copper, spices, sandalwood, teak, and black wood from the East were exchanged for shipments of purple dye, clothing, pearls, gold and silver; with Qatar providing the bulk of the purple dye and pearls for trade7. Up until the seventh century A.D. Qatar and the other

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Psychology and the History of Quebec Nationalism Essay

The Psychology and the History of Quebec Nationalism - Essay Example "While nationalism does not necessarily arise in all nations, it, nevertheless, cannot exist without the context of the existence of a nation."2 Quebec is a nation that has repeatedly attempted to separate from Canada. Specifically, they are seeking to independence from Canada while retaining an economic partnership. Quebec was founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, became an English colony in 1763, was reestablished with French law in 1774, divided by the English in 1791, and reunited by the Act of the Union in 1840. Since then, Quebec has been in a constant battle with Canada to become its own nation. Recently, Canada has opposed all efforts and even some compromises of Quebec's drive for separation.3 In order to examine this issue within the context of Quebec, one must examine it from both an historical and a psychological perspective. The historical perspective will trace the significant developments within this struggle and analyze its historical (including legislative and judicial) issues and impacts. In addition, the psychological perspective will examine the underlying ideas of the conflict on a behavioral and socio/personal basis. Integrating these two approaches will effectively paint an overall picture of the political and social aspects involved with Quebec's battle for a national identity. __________________ 1. Belanger, Claude,(2000),Events, Issues, and Concepts of Quebec History: Quebec Nationalism. Quebec History. Available from: Http:// quebechistory/events/natpart1.htm 2. Belanger 3. Perspective and History of Quebec Nationalism, UNI, Available from: History of the Conflict It is impossible to analyze and issue of politics without first setting up its historical canvas. Before the mid 1900s, most nationalistic movements in Canada had to do with French Canadians as a whole rather than specifically Quebec nationalism. In 1962 Jean Lesage requested that Quebec be granted a type of "special status"; Daniel Johnson asked that proposed an establishment of "associated states" in 1967; Robert Bourassa asked that Quebec be given "distinct society" status in 1970, 1973 and 1976. All met with failure.4 Following this was the 1976 election of the Parti Quebecois. This party held a referendum in 1980 that sought to negotiate a political sovereignty from and an economic association with Canada. The people voted it down by a measure of 60/40. Many interpret this failure as a result of the belief in false promises of Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau. In fact, the federal government repatriated its own constitution which enabled Canada to then make modifications to it. The federal government did not reach this agreement with the provinces but on its own. It took effect in 1982 even though Quebec vociferously opposed it because it limited Quebec's ability to control matters of language and culture. Quebec has never signed this constitution. 5 In an attempt at compromise, Quebec asked the federal government to consider five clauses to be added to its constitution in a 1990 vote. These clauses became known as the Meech Lake Accord, and passing them would have allowed Quebec to sign the Canadian constitution. Two provinces refused to agree to the Meech Lake Ac