Friday, November 29, 2019

South West Airlines Analysis

Introduction All business organizations operate in a dynamic environment that keeps on changing from time to time. This environment refers to all the elements that exist either outside or within the organization that affect the organization both positively and negatively.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on South West Airlines Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, for an organization to ensure its continued survival, it has to adapt accordingly to these changes. Failure to which, it risks collapse. This paper, therefore, seeks to analyze ways in which an organization can implement changes so as to ensure its survival. Southwest airlines will be used as a case study for better understanding. Changes That Could Occur Every business, irrespective of the industry in which it operates, faces the risk of change in the business environmental conditions. Some of these changes may be due to; changes in technology, political instability, terrorist threats, natural disasters, rising prices of energy, changes in consumer preferences, increased costs of production and many more. However, since this case study is in the airline industry, only a number of those mentioned above will be applicable. Southwest Airlines is a renowned airline in Dallas which, due to the recent upheaval in the business environment, has had to come up with measures to ensure that it remains in business. It is one of the few businesses that have managed to make profits despite the constant changes (Kathleen, 2008). Before going into detail, it is critical to analyze the problems that the airline industry encountered as a whole. Being an industry that heavily relies on energy, it is, therefore, normal that the fluctuating prices in energy, specifically oil, will be a significant set back. Fluctuating oil prices have been an enormous headache to the economy as a whole. In the airline industry, a rise in oil price s means a subsequent rise in fuel prices. Airlines are, therefore, forced to transfer these increasing costs to passengers through increased air fare. As a result of this vicious cycle, airlines have been experiencing low demand for their services hence reduced revenues as compared to increased unit costs. Another significant problem has been the rising inflation rates which have led to a general and persistent increase in the prices of labor, airport cost and maintenance costs. The current weather conditions have also been a dominant problem. It has led to losses in revenue in the airline industry due to cancellations in flights emanating from poor visibility. Others include increased competition within the industry and rising unit costs.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Measures Taken by Southwest Airlines With this in mind, we shall now concentrate on the measures that southwest airlines have taken so as to ensure continued growth, profitability and customer satisfaction. One of the effective measures taken that has seen Southwest Airlines emerge as one of the most profitable firms in the United States is the low air fares that it offers compared to its competitors. Southwest Airlines, unlike its competitors, chose to stick to charging lower rates despite the low demand of airline services by customers without compromising the quality of services offered. By using this strategy, it aimed at increasing the number of people who chose to fly with the airline despite the reduced demand. This has seen them increase their revenues as more people opt to fly with them especially in these hard economic times as opposed to their competitors (Kathleen, 2008). To ensure its survival and its continued market dominance, Southwest airlines also introduced new products, which included the â€Å"early bird check in†, and a package that allowed passeng ers to travel with their pets at an affordable rate. The â€Å"early bird check in† gives passengers the luxury of checking-in in advance. These new products have contributed to increased revenues, due to an increase in the number of passengers using the airline as it has given them an edge over other airlines. To deal with the increasing rise in costs, the airline, instead of downsizing in the normal way, the airline has come up with a plan that gives the employees an option to retire earlier than they are required by law. This move has worked to their advantage as a number of employees have welcomed this plan. This has enabled the company to reduce the number of employees to a reasonable size without causing any conflict between senior management and lower level employees. This has also ensured that the employees remain loyal and highly motivated towards their work (Hewlett, 2006). The airline, in these turbulent business environmental conditions, has given great importance to financial management. It has done this by ensuring that it maintains healthy cash balances by constantly looking at a new way to generate revenue. It has also resorted to selling and leasing some of its aircrafts as a way of raising more money to cater for the rising unit costs. The airline is also keen on maintaining a minimum level of debt so as to reduce chances of insolvency. Due to the ever changing consumer behavior and preferences, the airline has introduced a range of new products so as to enhance customer loyalty and attract new customers. Some of these products were mentioned above.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on South West Airlines Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They include the â€Å"early bird check in†, the package that allows passengers to travel with pets, and an internet package that allows passengers to browse while on board, a Wi-Fi enabled aircraft and not char ging the passengers for their luggage. This has seen an increased market share and has warded off some of competition from other airlines (Hall, 2008). In these turbulent business environmental conditions, the airline recognizes that it does not have enough capital at its disposal and has, therefore, taken to postponing the expansion of the airline. It has instead identified the unprofitable areas in the business and ceased their operations with the aim of transferring this man power to areas that are more profitable. This has led to a significant increase in the airline’s revenues. It should, however, be noted that there are certain elements that are beyond an organization’s control. In our case, they include; natural disasters, unfavorable weather, for example, the recent case of snow which has seen many airlines cancel their flights and lose billions of dollars in revenues, and political instability (Yilmaz, 2008). Kotter’s Eight Step Change Model One can use Kotter’s eight step change model to describe the changes that have been implemented by the airline. Kotter’s model recommends that the first step to change is dependent on the top management identifying the need for change and subsequently creating pressure and urgency for the change to occur. With respect to this, it is clear that the management of the airline identified the current turbulent business environment conditions and quickly created the urgency and need for change as they realized that change was necessary if they were to thrive in the airline industry. The second step in this model is to educate and communicate the need for change to other subordinate employees so as to minimize chances of resistance in the implementation stage (Global Literacy Foundation, 2010). Based on the successes of the strategies that the airline implemented, it can therefore be said that they successfully carried out the second step of Kotter’s model of change. Kotter then goes on to give the third step as generating ideas or coming up with a vision. This idea or vision could be a model or a concept that could be implemented by the organization. In the case of the airline, the changes that were implemented in the end were the ideas that were generated in this step (Global Literacy Foundation, 2010). Some of them include; the introduction of new products by the airline, sticking to their low air fares policy, coming up with the voluntary early retirement policy and many more.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fourth step is communicating the ideas to every one in the organization to allow for debating and also to ensure that everyone in the organization is involved and catered for so as to avoid future resistance especially in the implementation stages. Still, given the success of the changes that were implemented by the airline, it can be safely assumed that this step was also carried out successfully (Hewlett, 2006). The fifth step, according to Kotter involves eliminating the objects or the people who are resisting the change. This can be done through educating the people who are resisting the change and allowing them to air their grievances. The organization should also ensure that the leaders in charge of supervising are qualified for the jobs. This step still falls in the planning stages of Kotter’s model for change and, therefore, we can only assume that it was a success for the airline given that they were able to see their visions and ideas to the end. The sixth step according to Kotter is to create short term goals which are achievable. It should be noted that it is of vital importance for these short term goals to be achieved by the organization. Failure to achieve these goals will only prove the critics and the people resistant to the change right. This will in turn make it very difficult for the organization to progress with its plans hence making it vulnerable to failure. It is also a very important step as the achievement of short term goals motivates the employees of the organization (Hall, 2008). Southwest Airlines in light of this ensured that they put in place short term goals. These goals were in the form of quarterly reports, which were supposed to show the airline’s progress in terms of it financial position, its market share, its efficiency in managing its finances and whether its aim to reduce capital spending had been achieved. The seventh step entails seeking to improve the changes already realized through the short term goals. This plays a key role of ensuring that the organization remains keen on continued growth and improvement. Using the Southwest Airlines as an example, it can be seen that the airline did not stop at the successes that were achieved as shown by their quarter year reports. They went the extra mile and looked for more ways in which they could improve the changes already implemented. They did this by looking for more products that they could offer the passengers, more ways of raising more capital that they could use for other profitable ventures (Yilmaz, 2008). The last step according to Kotter’s model is reinforcing and implementing the change into the organization. It is the responsibility of management to ensure that the changes are accepted and internalized by everyone in the organization. This step requires the change to be introduced on a large scale level, with the result being its absorption into all parts of the organization. In addition to the reinforcement, there should be a regular follow up of the changes that have been implemented, so as to ensure that things continue to run smoothly and also to provide room for improvement. Using the Southwest Airlines as an example, it can be noted that these changes were reinforced and they became a part of the airline. Some of these changes have largely contributed to the airline’s success (Yilmaz, 2008). It can be seen that the airline made the strategy for charging low air fares a part of it and the airline even became popular because of this. In addition, it adapted a plan that gave its employee the option of leaving employment voluntarily even before they had reached the proper retirement age. This brought about a culture of respect among the employees and management. The new products that were introduced by the Southwest Airlines for example â€Å"the early bird check in†, the package that allowed passengers to travel with pets and the package that made it possible for passengers t o access the internet also became a part of the organization. The importance that the Southwest airlines attached to proper financial management also became a part of the organization (Hewlett, 2006). The Effectiveness of the Changes Implemented by the Southwest Airlines Every organization is always faced with a dilemma when it comes to change. This is because of the uncertainties that change brings with it. However from the above analysis, it is evident that for an organization to survive in the current turbulent times, change is inevitable. The effectiveness of the changes implemented by the Southwest Airlines can be seen in their annual reports. The airline’s returns have greatly improved despite the current poor economic conditions. The company recorded losses in the first quarter. However, the airline was able to turn this around and report profits unlike it competitors. The effectiveness of these changes can also be seen as passengers have increasingly become more loyal to the airline compared to others. The airline has also recorded an increase in new passengers who now prefer the airline as opposed to other airlines (Hall, 2008). Southwest airlines have also experienced a reduction in operating costs due to the measures that it put in place to curb the rising costs of operation for example the postponement of expanding the airline, introducing a voluntary retirement scheme for the employees, and looking for different ways to deal with the rising energy costs. Due to its insistence on the need for proper financial management, the airline has been able to maintain very low levels of debts hence eliminating the possibility of insolvency. It has also been able to find new and innovative ways to improve its liquidity position. Therefore, when all is said and done, the changes that the Southwest Airlines implemented have been more effective than disadvantageous (Kathleen, 2008). References Global Literacy Foundation. (2010). Kotter’s 8-Step Cha nge Model. Web. Hall, A. (2008). Organizational Pay Analysis: A Case Study of Southwest Airlines. Web. Hewlett, R. (2006). The Cognitive leader. London: Rowman Littlefield Pub Inc. Kathleen, B. H. (2008). From Analyst to Leader: Elevating the Role of the Business Analyst Management Concepts. London: Free Press. Yilmaz, A.K. (2008). The Corporate Sustainability Model for Airline Business. Web. This research paper on South West Airlines Analysis was written and submitted by user Bryce Wheeler to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

The House on Mango Street †Literature Essay

The House on Mango Street – Literature Essay Free Online Research Papers The House on Mango Street Literature Essay Norman Vincent Pearle, An American Protestant Clergyman and Writer, states, â€Å"One of the greatest moments in anybodys developing experience is when he no longer tries to hide from himself but determines to get acquainted with himself as he really is†. Esperanza Cordero lives in Mango Street a barren and ravaged vicinity, where she discovers the hard veracity of existence, the social economical class and gender. Esperanza is faced with numerous obstacles’, such as her apparition of racial antagonism, and the mysteries of her emotional thoughts and sexuality. Living in Mango Street changes the perception of Esperanza from a credulous child into a blossomed and mature young woman. Esperanza is mainly influenced by her; neighborhood, socioeconomic status, and family. Esperanza’s neighborhood is fundamentally the main aspect of her identity. In the novel, House on Mango Street, Sandra Cisneros, claims, â€Å"The Laundromat downstairs has been boarded up because it had been robbed two days before† (Cisneros 4-5). Even though the Laundromat had been robbed, Esperanza is not bothered by it, knowing that her neighborhood is ghastly, she is used to it. The robbing of the Laundromat is a significant event, which idealizes the type of neighborhood Esperanza resides in. In the chapter, â€Å"Those Who Don’t†, Esperanza describes her neighbor as, â€Å"All brown all around† (Cisneros 28). What Esperanza means by â€Å"All brown all around†, is that their all similar inhabitants who live in her neighborhood, which explains Esperanza’s identity. The race of Esperanza’s neighborhood is a significant detail in Esperanza’s neighborhood because it identifies what people assume of Mango Street. Another effect on Esperanza’s Identity is her socioeconomic status. Sandra Cisneros, Author of, The House on Mango Street, states, â€Å"Before we lived in Mango Street we lived in Keller† (Cisneros 3). Esperanza’s moving from place to place, describes the socioeconomic status, though Esperanza does not like moving a lot, it is due to the families financial status. Esperanza is affected by moving from one place to another, because getting used to a new area is not a fast experience. Esperanza’s socioeconomic status is a negative influence because the house on Mango Street was not the house, Esperanza’s father described. In the chapter, â€Å"The House on Mango Street†, Esperanza states how the nun pointed at her house and said, â€Å"You live there?† (Cisneros 4-5). Esperanza was hurt when she realized that the nun was surprised at the state she lives in, due to her socioeconomic status. This impacted Esperanza’s Self-esteem and knew that living wasn’t Mango Street was not temporary. The Final element of identity that describes Esperanza is her family. Sandra Cisneros, the author of House on Mango Street, exclaims, â€Å"Until then I am a red balloon, a balloon tied to an anchor† (Cisneros 9). What Esperanza means is that her little sister is getting in the way of her finding friends, since she has to take Nenny everywhere she goes. Elaborating on the balloon tied on to the anchor, Esperanza could mean that the string is the symbol of their family. Esperanza is affected by her family in the chapter â€Å"House on Mango Street†, when all family member have to live in one bedroom. This say a lot thing about Esperanza’s as family member, because taking care of Nenny isn’t enough, she has to share a room with all her family member, which shows a lot of persistence and determination. Esperanza loved her family and always wonders how she belonged in a family like her, but she knew there was a reason why she was there. In conclusion, Esperanza’s attitude changed as the novel went on she experienced many difficulties, but she managed to overcome these obstacles and still thrive. Esperanza’s identity is influenced mainly by her; neighborhood, socioeconomic status and family. Living in Mango Street was a challenge for Esperanza at first, but coming towards events like being raped at the carnal to being kissed by an old man on his birthday all changed her perspective and gave her a new clear vision of her surrounding, At the end of the novel Esperanza wasn’t a credulous or naà ¯ve anymore, she was educated and ready to leave Mango Street, a Street she will always remember. As the great Pablo Picasso said, â€Å"Inspiration does exist, it must find you working† Work Cited Cisneros, Sandra. The House on Mango Street. New York: Vintage Book, 1984. 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Thursday, November 21, 2019

UAV history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

UAV history - Essay Example In World War 2, Nazis developed revenge weapon 1, a UAV that could be used in fighting targets not meant for the military. It could move at a speed of 804km/h, and carry 907 kilos of explosives. In 1960s and 70s, US used AQM-34 Ryan to fly more than 34000 surveillance flights. It was a type of UAV that could be launched form a host plane and had operators controlling it within that plane. The US also used lightning bugs a type of UAV that was released from an airborne C-130s for several missions over china and Vietnam. In late 1970s and 80s, Israel came up with the scout and pioneer which may be a representative of the modern type of UAV used today. It was capable of transmitting live video with a view of 360 degrees [2]. Due to their small size, these UAVs were cost effective to produce and difficult to shoot them. USA acquired them from Israel and used them in the gulf war. In the 20th century, the development of the predator drone saw the UAVs remain in the war front. One example is the MQ-1 predator that was useful in the warfront and is still crucial even

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Yosemite Overcrowding Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Yosemite Overcrowding - Essay Example Tourism should exist in such a manner that it will not destroy what it is trying to serve. This is morally right. On the contrast, overcrowding in national parks does not save the park environment. This is morally wrong and leads to pollution, soil erosion, vandalism, deterioration of infrastructure in the park, and promotes global warming in the park. In addition, the pursuit of economic gains by allowing overcrowding, at the expense of environmental preservation is morally wrong. Yosemite National Park is one of the national parks in the U.S. that are faced with great overcrowding. The Yosemite Valley was set aside by President Abraham Lincoln in 1864 for preservation (Hayes Web). Since then, people have had the opportunity to enjoy recreation and amenities that have enhanced their experience in Yosemite Valley. However, this privilege faces a threat due to the major problem of overcrowding in the park. Overcrowding is known to have detrimental effects on any park and the environment. In Yosemite Park, there are only 1,100 parking spaces. However, there are more than 8,000 cars that pass through the Yosemite Valley (Central Sierra Environmental Resource Center Web). The large number of people visiting this people puts a strain on the resources in the park. For instance, this has led to degradation of the park air, a lack of parking, and straining on the Merced River (The New York Times Web). There is therefore, need to regulate the public access to the park in order to enhance conservation of the Yosemite Valley. The problem of overcrowding in national parks is a major ethical issue. This is mainly because it is the right of people to visit parks and experience nature. Therefore, stopping people visiting parks in order to avoid overcrowding would be infringing on their rights, which is morally wrong. Nonetheless, it is possible for the management of parks to reach an ethical decision that will ensure that overcrowding in

Monday, November 18, 2019

The Australian Health care system is founded on the concept of equity Essay

The Australian Health care system is founded on the concept of equity of access. Discuss this statement with relation to the con - Essay Example (Braveman, 2003). Identification of those people can be made through the use of census data using the criteria such as geographic, socio economic, epidemiological or clinical or through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) or ambulatory care sensitive condition hospital admission data (Muecke, 2010). Australian initiatives The National Health and Hospital Reform Commission (2008) and the National Health Performance Framework (2004) have given rise to the following principles for delivering improved healthcare to rural and remote populations. Accordingly, the services should 1) be accessible and equitable in that services should be need based and payable consistent with paying capacity. 2) be needs based and should be sensitive to cultural differences, cultural diversity and choices 3) ensure early intervention aimed at maintaining wellness, prevention of illness and achieving optimal health. 4) aim at comprehensives of services through coordinated services of diverse spe cialists in the wake of incidence of chronic diseases, 5) ensure safety and quality of health care which should be appropriate, in time and effective consistent with the best available evidence, 6) be efficient by minimising cost and maximising value, 7) be sustainable and 8) be based on the principle of accountability (Humphreys & Wakerman, n.d ). The Final report June 2009 of the health reform commission towards a better health for all Australians by tackling major access and equity issues prioritises five issues towards that end. 1) First, to improve the health outcomes for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. 2) Second, mental health care to be improved. 3) Third, to extend support for those living in remote and rural areas. 4) Fourth, improved access to dental health care. And 5) Fifth, Quicker access to health care in public hospitals (DepartmentOfHealthandAgeing, 2009). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. This long neglected segment of the Australia n population has caught the attention of the policy makers who have made determined efforts to give the top most priority for better health care delivery to these people. The Australian government have publicly apologised to these people. The intensity and sincerity of purpose to improve health outcomes to the First Australians living in isolation both in rural and urban areas have been unprecedented. Towards this end, a separate authority of National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Authority (NATSIHA) has been formed. All the funding are aggregated and entrusted to this authority which is expected to utilise the funds for purchasing and commissioning the best available health care services. The services are expected to be effective, of high quality, appropriate to their culture and to meet the needs of these populations with a focus of the family and community of each member. Health care delivery does not mean treating illness alone. In order to promote their well bein g, their low nutrition intake has been targeted to be improved so as to close the health gap among these people. As a part of this initiative, vegetable and fruits hitherto unavailable to them owing to their remoteness are to be made available at their places of living at affordable prices (DepartmentOfHealthandAgeing, 2009). Serious mental illness The next priority has been accorded to

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Influence of Al3+ Addition on Activated Sludge

Influence of Al3+ Addition on Activated Sludge Influence of Al3+ addition on the flocculation and sedimentation of activated sludge: Comparison of single and multiple dosing patterns Mariam Touati Abstract In this research, single and multiple dosing of Al3+ were used to study the flocculation and sedimentation of activated sludge (AS). It was found that in the single Al3+ dosing condition; sludge flocculation is improved but sedimentation is declined. Adding the same amount of Al3+ during multiple dosing attained a similar reduction in turbidity. Interaction energy had a major role during single dosing conditions, whereas multiple dosing was mostly effective in reducing EPS content; this is regarding the differences in the performance of flocculation. Introduction The widely most used process for wastewater treatment is the activated sludge (AS) system. The water quality of the sewerage is affected in a large way by the solid-liquid separation in the system, which depends efficient sludge flocculation and sedimentation. 70% 90% of the secondary clarifiers in the AS systems however have encountered solid-liquid separation issues. Two of the main causers of these issues are the reproduction of filamentous bacteria and deficient sludge flocculation. Dosing of flocculants is one of the most effective solution to poor flocculation performance. Cations act as flocculants when added to wastewater and ease flocculation. High cation concentration helps improve biological flocculation. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) consist of polysaccharides, proteins, humic compounds, and other cellular ingredients. EPS is considered an important component of AS flocs. They play a major role in maintaining AS flocs structure and function. In most of the cases, dense, strong, and large flocs are desirable for AS settling and compaction. AS flocs have microorganisms in addition to organic and inorganic particles ingrained in the EPS, and the suspended solids accumulate into them. By bridging with multivalent cations, EPS is able to bind to the microbial cells, which are likely to have an influence on the EPS content in the system. An increase in monovalent cations in the AS declines sludge properties and damages floc, while addition of multivalent cations improves sludge flocculation. It was found that, compared to monovalent and bivalent cations, trivalent cations help improve flocculation performance of the AS under both wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and laboratory conditions. In the present study, Al3+ was added to AS systems according to single and multiple dosing patterns, and a concentration gradient was set under single dosing conditions. The research objectives were as follows: To investigate the influence of Al3+ dosage on AS flocculation and sedimentation. To determine the more efficient dosing pattern. To reveal the mechanisms governing the influence of Al3+ on AS flocculation and sedimentation. Material and methods AS cultivation The AS used in this study was cultivated in two parallel sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) numbered R-S (single dosing) and R-M (multiple dosing), and each had a working volume of 4 L. The following steps were taken: Each reactor was supplied with a paddle mixer, which operates at 100 rads/min, and that is to prevent the AS from settling. To maintain the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the range of 2-3 mg/L, air was added. sludge retention time (SRT) was controlled around 10 d. The temperatures were kept at 22  ±1à ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ °c in the reactors. The SBRs were working at a cycle time of 12 h, and 2 cycles were performed each day. The time used for filling, aerating, settling and decanting was 20, 640, 40 and 20 minutes respectively. Both the influent and effluent volumes per cycle were maintained at 2 L. Tap water was used to synthesize the artificial wastewater. Glucose, NH4Cl and KH2PO4 were used as sources of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) respectively. The relative proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), N and P (COD: N: P ratio) in the influent was maintained at 100: 5: 1, with the COD concentration at 700  ± 30 mg/L. Al3+ dosing test Single dosing test The AS in reactor R-S was cultivated without adding Al3+ in the influent. 500 mL of AS sample were added into 5 identical 250 mL beakers, each receiving 100 mL, to which a different Al3+ dosage was added. The Al3+ dosages were 0.125, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 meq/L, respectively, in beakers designated as S-0.125, S-0.5, S-1.0, S-1.5, respectively. No Al3+ was added into beaker S-0, which was the blank control of the experiment. All of the Al3+ in the single dosing test was added once. At 50 rad/min for 5 min then 117 rad/min for 5 min, the samples were mixed. Multiple dosing test In this test, Al3+ at a concentration 0.1 meq/L was added to the influent of reactor R-M and introduced to the reactor in each operation cycle. The mixing pattern was in accordance with single dosing test. EPS extraction protocol A 25-mL sample of AS suspension was centrifuged at 6000 g for 10 min at 4à ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ °C, and the supernatant that was carefully collected was bulk solution. A NaCl solution with the same conductivity as the AS sample was prepared; then it was applied to re-suspend the AS material in the tube. Immediately, the AS suspension was oscillated by a vortex mixer for 1 min and then sheared using an ultrasonication instrument at 0.4 W/mL for 30 sec. The suspension was centrifuged at 4000 g for 10 min at 4à ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ °C, and the supernatant was collected as LB-EPS. The AS sample left in the tube was re-suspended to its original volume of 25 mL with the NaCl solution, and then oscillated for 1 min and sheared at 0.5 W/mL for 1 min. Subsequently, the suspended sample was centrifuged at 4000 g for 15 min at 4à ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ °C, from which the supernatant collected was TB-EPS, and the AS sample left in the tube was the pellet. The final step, the bulk solution, LB-EPS and TB-EPS extracted were filtrated through a 0.45 micro-meter cellulose acetate membrane. Analytical technique The total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the bulk solution, LB-EPS and TB-EPS were determined using a TOC/TN analyzer. The Al3+ concentrations in the bulk solution were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. After settling for 30 min, 100 mL of AS suspension were suctioned and transferred into a graduated cylinder for measuring the SVI. The turbidity of the supernatant was measured. The total interaction energy of AS was measured and calculated. Results and discussions Basic characteristics of the AS system Influence of Al3+ on AS interaction energy Single dosing According to the total interaction energy curves of the single dosing test, the energy barrier and Al3+ concentration are inversely proportional, as in, the energy barrier decreased as the Al3+ concentration increased. Comparison between single and multiple dosing patterns Multiple Al3+ dosing compressed the double electrical layers through charge neutralization. In addition to zeta potential, other factors also had an effect on AS flocculation, which reimbursed the relatively weak zeta potential reduction following multiple Al3+ dosing and ultimately equilibrated the effluent turbidities. Other factors contributed to the lower turbidity related to multiple Al3+ dosing. These observations suggested that the investigation should not be restricted to zeta potential only, and that the total interaction energy should also be taken into consideration. Multiple Al3+ dosing can promote AS flocculation by compressing the double electrical layers. It was found out that clarifying how dosing patterns affects flocculation performance in terms of total interaction energy is relatively difficult. To evaluate the influence of Al3à ¾ on AS flocculation, the role of EPS, besides that of interaction energy, must be examined. Influence of Al3+ on the EPS content Single dosing test High EPS content could worsen sludge flocculation. Sludge flocs become denser and more compact with Al3+ addition. LB-EPS play an important role in the formation of AS flocs But, an excess of LB-EPS might have a negative effect on the bonding of cells and could deteriorate the floc structure, eventually causing undesirable solid-liquid separation. EPS and supernatant turbidity decrease as Al3+ dosage increased. High LB-EPS content may result in high water content in the sludge flocs, leading to worsened sludge compactness and increased floc porosity, all causing poor flocculation The addition of Al3+ was found to lighten AS flocculation by counteracting the negative effect of LB-EPS. Al3+ reduces the suspended solids in the supernatant and improves effluent turbidity. Comparison between single and multiple dosing Both the LB-EPS and TB-EPS contents that were extracted in the multiple dosing test were much lower than those extracted in the single dosing test. Which means that in the multiple dosing test, Al3+ augmented effectively the densification of sludge through the ion bridging effect. Single dosing of Al3+ shown greater effect on the interaction energy, whereas multiple dosing of Al3+ reduced the EPS content more effectively. The eventual flocculation performances achieved by the two dosing patterns were equal. Al3+ distribution characteristics in the AS Distribution characteristics As the single dose increased the Al 3+ concentration found in the sludge increased as well. Because of Al 3+ high charge valence and solubility, almost all of it dosed constrained with the sludge. Therefore, no Al 3+ was found in the bulk solution. The amount of negative charges in different sludge components is in the following sequence: pellet > TBEPS > LB-EPS. No Al3+ could be detected in sludge components other than the pellet when the single dosage was less than 0.125 meq/L. When equal amounts of Al 3+ was added during single and multiple dosing, the Al 3+ accumulations in the sludge were similar, the Al 3+ spreading in different sludge components were different. As seen in figure 2. Al3+ could be detected in the bulk solution in the multiple dosing test, but not in the single dosing test. According to all these findings, it was concluded that the bonding capacity between Al 3+ and the sludge was different with the dosing pattern. Single dosing Single Al3+ dosage and the amount of Al3+ in the pellet are directly proportional, as the first increased the second increases as well, respectively. This caused an increase in the sludge flocs density and a decrease in the content of suspended solids, which leads to the improvement of effluent turbidity. Comparison between single and multiple dosing Pellet Al 3+ concentration has an essential positive effect on sludge flocculation. The time for the reaction between multivalent cations and the AS is critical to flocculation performance. The decrease in the sludge surface charges declined due to the increased Al3+ accumulation in the pellet. Influence of Al3+ on AS settleability Single dosing A higher single dosage of flocculant could increase the nucleation rate and the amount of small aggregates, and through the bridging function, it strengthen the interaction energy among the organics on the sludge surface. Comparison between single and multiple dosing EPS content has a significant effect on sludge settleability. Both sludge flocculation and sedimentation were enhanced by multiple additions of Al3+. Al3+ achieved floc densification by the constant recognition of the sludge structure as well as removing water. The key difference between the two dosing patterns was the variation in the reaction time. Engineering significance In case of the failure of AS flocculation and/or sedimentation in waste water treatment process (WWTP), a solution could be to add flocculants only once. Multiple dosing, which is continuous addition of flocculants in WWTPs, extends the reaction time and at the same time promotes flocculation and sedimentation performances. Therefore, it is preferable that the concentrations of multivalent cations in the pellet, in a practical operational procedure, be continuously monitored and observed; where as soon as these concentrations decrease, low concentration of flocculants must be added continuously, in order to maintain the flocculation and sedimentation of the sludge. Conclusion Sludge flocculation and turbidity elimination ware enhanced when the single dosing increased, whereas sludge sedimentation deteriorated. Better sludge sedimentation was accomplished with multiple dosing, even though there was no big difference in the reduction of turbidity between single and multiple dosing. Regarding reducing the interaction energy barrier, single dosing was more adequate, while in terms of decreasing the EPS content, multiple dosing was more effective.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Essays --

Role of Open Design in Engineering â€Å"Before I start teaching you all Industrial Revolution, I have a question?†. My history teacher drifted towards the blackboard and wrote - â€Å"Who invented the Steam Engine?† I raised my hand promptly. â€Å"Yes, Ankit.† I stood up - â€Å"James Watt, maam!† â€Å"You are correct. It was the invention of Steam Engine by James Watt that changed the world and led to the industrial revolution.† I gave a equanimous smile and took my seat. Boldrin and Levine mentioned in their book Against Intellectual Monopoly how James Watt got the idea of allowing steam to expand and condense in separate containers while repairing a small Newcomen steam engine. In 1768, he applied for a patent on the idea after doing a series of improvements. He spent the next six months working hard to obtain his patent, made an alliance with the rich industrialist Matthew Boulton and even secured an act of Parliament extending his patent until the year 1800. In the name of economic freedom, the great statesman Edmund Burke spoke eloquently in Parliament against the creation of this unnecessary ...

Monday, November 11, 2019

Jose Rizal First Travel Abroad

Chapter 4- Rizal’s First Travel Abroad Rizal’s Departure * May 3, 1882 Rizal left the Philippines boarded the spanish steamer SS Salvadora bound for Singapore. * Rizal’s Departure for Spain was kept secret to avoid detection by the spanish authorities and the friars. Even his own parents did not know because he knew they would not allow him to go, especially his mother. * The captain of the ship was Donato Lecha from Austria. * May 9, 1882 Salvadora Docked in Singapore. * May 11,1882 Rizal transferred to another ship Djemnah, A French Vessel for Europe. May 17, 1882 Djemnah Reach Point Galle A seacoast town in Southern Ceylon (Now Sri Lanka). * The following day the Djemnah weighed anchor and resumed the voyage towards Colombo, The capital of Ceylon. * From Colombo the Djemnah continued the voyage crossing Indian Ocean to the Cape of Guardufui, Africa. Which Rizal called â€Å" Inhospitable land but famous†. * The next stopover was in Aden. He was amused t o see the camels for the first time. * From Aden, the Djemnah continued to voyage to the city of Suez.He saw the Suez Canal for the first time and he was thrilled to saw it, in which was built by Ferdinand De Lesseps ( A French Diplomat Engineer). * June 11,1882 The ship docked at Naples an Italian City, He was fascinated by Mt. Vesivius, The Castle of St. Telmo. * On the night of June 12,1882 the steamer docked at Marseilles. He visited the Famous Chateau D’if where Dantes is a hero of the Count of Monte Cristo from Alexander Dumas novel. * Travelling from train he crossed the Pyreness, stopped for a day at frontier town of Port Bou. After the passport inspection at Port Bou, Rizal arrived at Barcelona. Arrival in Barcelona * June 16,1882 Rizal arrived in Barcelona. * His first impression of Barcelona was unfavorable but it changed and he began to like the city because of its atmospheric of freedom and liberalism. * He wrote an essay entitled â€Å"Amor Patrio† (Love of the country), Rizal sent this article to Basilio Teodoro Moran (Publisher of Diariong Tagalog). Rizal’s studied in Madrid * Rizal followed the advice of his older brother Paciano to finish his medical course in Madrid in the fall of 1882. He enrolled a course: Medicine and Philosophy & Letters at the Universidad Central de Madrid at the same time he studied paintings and sculpture in the Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando. * Rizal economized his daily expenses until he was able to buy second hand books and built a fair size library of his own. * During his first summer vacation, Rizal decided to visit Paris on June 17. 1883 to August 20,1883. Rizal Joins Masonry * March 1883 Rizal joined Masonic Lodge called ACACIA in Madrid and became a Master Mason on November 15, 1890. Luna and Hidalgo’s Triumph * After 2 years in Spain things went wrong in Philippines. Rizal experienced financial problems due to calamities happened. * Rizal monthly allowance were delayed, ther e were a times that he missed meals during the day. * A touching incident in Rizal’s life in Madrid occurred on June 24, 1884, Because he was broke, he was unable to take breakfast that day. With an empty stomach, he attended class at the university and participated in the contest in Greek Language and he won the gold medal. * In the evening of the same day, he was able to eat dinner because he was a guest speaker in a banquet held in honor of Juan Luna and Felix Resurrecion at Restaurant Ingles, Madrid.Completion of Rizal studies. * Rizal completed his Medical Course in Spain on June 21,1884 * Nov. 20-22, 1884 Rizal involved in student demonstration caused by the address of Dr. Miguel Morayta proclaiming â€Å" The Freedom of Science and The Teacher†. Rizal in Germany and His Practice of Ophthalmology * Rizal chose to specialize in Ophthalmology because he wanted to cure his mother’s eye ailment. * Nov. 1885, Rizal living in Paris for 4 months and he worked as an assistant to Dr. Louis de Weckert until Feb. 1886. * Because of his homesickness he wrote a fine poem â€Å" A las flores de Heidelberg† (To the flowers of Heidelberg).

Friday, November 8, 2019

The Creative Penn Has Much to Offer Writers

The Creative Penn Has Much to Offer Writers If you are a writer looking for information about the process of planning, writing, publishing and marketing your book, The Creative Penn is an excellent resource. In fact, it was voted one of the top 100 sites for writers by Writers Digest and offers over 1,000 articles and 100+ hours of audio and podcast information, as well as multiple downloads and bonus material. As the mastermind behind the website, Joanna Penn is an award-nominated, New York Times and USA Today bestselling author of thrillers under the penname J.F. Penn and offers valuable advice through several free and paid resources available on the website.Navigating the siteWith easy-to-navigate links and enough white space to make the text-heavy site readable, The Creative Penn suggests that visitors start here with a page full of great resources for novice and expert writers alike. At the top of the page, Penn offers her free eBook and video series, Author 2.0 Blueprint, in which she shares everything you need to write, publish and market your book, as well as how to become an author-entrepreneur. Her websites visitors will need to provide and confirm their email address to download the free resource.WritingNext on the sites navigation is a link to Penns free resources on writing and editing. On this page, she offers articles and tips based on the following topics:How to Write Fiction: 7 Steps to Write Your NovelHow to Write a Non-Fiction BookHow to Find Time to WriteHow to Find and Capture Ideas for your NovelHow to Research your Book and When to StopSelf-doubt and Imposter SyndromeYou Have PermissionOn Writing and The Fear of JudgmentWhat is your Definition of Success as a Writer?How to Write More and Create A Daily Writing HabitHow to Use Dictation to Write Faster and Become a Healthier WriterProductivity for Writers: 5 Ways to Become More Productive5 Ways to Get Your First Draft Material Out of Your Head and Onto the Page8 Ways Scrivener Will Help You Become a Proficient WriterUsing Different Author Names or a Pseudonym as a WriterEditing, Revisions and Proofreading: What Happens After the First Draft?How to Find and Work with a Professional EditorTutorial: How to Improve your Writing with GrammarlyMy list of Recommended EditorsAfter following some of the links along this extensive list, I found a wealth of information on all aspects of writing and locating the right professional editor for your work. I particularly enjoyed the information she provides on setting goals and deadlines for yourself to stay productive as a writer and get more accomplished in less time. Many of the links also show videos of the author and guide the reader toward additional resources (both free and paid) that are available online and through Amazon.Self-PublishingThe next page full of links on The Creative Penn relates to self-publishing. In this section, the topics she goes into in depth include:Self-Publishing Overview and TipsPros and Cons of Traditional vs. Self-publishing5 Important Steps Before You Self-PublishWhat is Your Definition of Success? How Will you Measure it?How to Self-Publish an EbookHow to Format an Ebook and a Print Book with VellumThe Pros and Cons of Exclusivity with AmazonHow to Self-Publish a Print BookHow to Self-Publish an AudiobookHow to Record Your Own AudiobookWhat if you need help self-publishing? How to Find the Best Service and Avoid Getting Ripped OffSell More Books with Boxsets and BundlingTurn your Non-Fiction Book into a WorkbookHow Much Does It Cost to Self-Publish?Successful Self-Publishing Tips with Joanna Penn and Mark DawsonTop 5 Mistakes of Indie Authors and How to Avoid ThemThis section contains anything and everything you could ever want to know about how to self-publish your book, including information on recording your own audiobook and creating a workbook for your nonfiction book. I especially liked watching the videos she includes on many of these links, such as this one.Its obvious from Penns easygoing instruction and exp ertise that she knows what shes talking about when it comes to writing and publishing a book, and its nice to have a sort of insiders glance at the world of self-publishing from someone who has done it often and become successful at it.MarketingThe marketing section of the blog is where Penns expertise really shows. In the first part, she discusses the basics and prerequisites for author marketing success, followed by the polarities of book marketing and where you sit on the scale, the book marketing mindset for authors, when to start marketing your book and how to balance your time.She follows that section with topics such as how to attract readers with a great book sales description, how to choose the right categories and keywords for your book, pricing books and offering free copies, using author pseudonyms, using box-sets and bundling, and writing a series.Following this, she offers a great tutorial on how to build your author website in under 30 minutes. Having set up websites on my own and knowing the amount of work that goes into it (especially for a website design newbie), I decided to pay special attention to this section. As with other articles on her blog, Penn offers helpful resources such as a YouTube video and a free downloadable PDF to help authors set up their sites. She even offers a discounted affiliate link through, which is the hosting platform she suggests for other authors.Its important to keep in mind that to build the website in 30 minutes, as Penn suggests is possible, you have to have a blog already set up on WordPress. Her instructions include a WordPress plugin through Blue Host that allows your WordPress site to basically transfer over. So yes, Im sure this can be done in 30 minutes but if an author is starting from scratch (without a blog already published on WordPress), they should not expect the site to be done within that timeframe.From an online marketing perspective, Penns advice on building and maintaining email lists for steady income includes a case study showing how she grew her own email list as and author. This particular resource is chock full of helpful advice on some of the finer points of automating email marketing campaigns. Penn explains that she went 603 people on her email list in November 2014 to 2,255 in January 2015 following this series of steps, which she clearly lays out for her reader. From a marketing perspective, I found the content to be extremely helpful to decode some of the confusion around email marketing campaigns and their usefulness.EntrepreneurIf you want to know how to make writing your day job and successful career, theres no better person to ask than someone who does just that. Based in Bath, England and a self-proclaimed travel junkie, Joanna Penn is a New York Times and USA Today bestselling thriller author who has written over 27 books. She is also an international professional speaker and award-winning creative entrepreneur. She has also written and se lf-published several nonfiction titles related to writing, including How To Market A Book, Business for Authors: How to be an Author Entrepreneur, How to Make a Living with your Writing, The Successful Author Mindset, The Healthy Writer, Successful Self-Publishing, Public Speaking for Authors, Creatives and Other Introverts, and Career Change.The Creative Penn PodcastFor writers who prefer to listen to interviews with authors and tips about writing, the podcast available on The Creative Penn website is free and available on RSS, iTunes, Android, Stitcher, and YouTube. With a combination of interviews, inspiration and information, the podcasts are posted every Monday and there are currently over 350 podcast episodes available to listen to and/or download.Some of the most recent podcast episodes listed are:#386 – Foolproof Dictation and Zero Social Media with Christopher Downing#385 – How to Write Effective Injuries For Your Characters with Samantha Keel#384 – The Artists Journey with Steven Pressfield#383 – Tips for Editing your Book with Natasa Lekic from NY Book Editors#382 – Redesign your Life to Prioritize your Writing with David Kadavy#381 – Writing with Depression with Michaelbrent CollingsCoursesThe Creative Penn website also provides access to three courses taught by Joanna Penn: How to Write a Novel, How to Write Non-Fiction: Turn Your Knowledge Into Words and Creative Freedom: How to Make a Living With Your Writing.The How to Write a Novel course is described as a step-by-step guide to understanding story structure and the elements of a novel, and then writing and editing your manuscript. The price at the time of this review is $297 or $50 per month for six months. According to Penn, it contains downloadable audio and PDF slides to allow students to learn at their own pace, with five modules along with extra QA videos with Joanna Penn.The How to Write Non-Fiction: Turn Your Knowledge Into Words course, accordi ng to Penn, will save you time, effort and frustration on your author journey. Penn describes the course as one in which she shares the business models of writing non-fiction, mindset issues around writing, the details of how to research, write and edit your book, dictation and productivity tips, as well as publishing, product creation, marketing and more.The Creative Freedom: How to Make a Living With Your Writing course is designed to be used to build a long-term sustainable business as an author entrepreneur and is an advanced-level course, available for writers who have already published a book. According to Penns description, it is specifically designed for writers who have a book or books but arent making money from them or writers who currently make some money from their writing but not enough.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Free Essays on The Star

â€Å"The Star†. â€Å"The universe has no purpose and no plan that since a hundred suns explode every year in our galaxy, at this very moment some race is dying in the depths of the space. Whether that race done good or evil during its lifetime will make no difference in the end: there is no divine justice, for there is no God.† I would love to believe that when I die I will live again, that some part of e will continue. Bu as much as I want to believe that, I know of nothing to suggest that it is more than wishful thinking. Of various arguments made for the existence of a supreme being, there’s only one that I think deserves serious attention. It’s called â€Å"The Argument from Design†, and basically runs like this: If you examine a watch, you would be very likely to conclude that somebody made it, because it is such a complex object. It would seem to be very unreasonable to consider that it could have happened by any conceivable kind of chance or event: an intelligent kind of being must have made it. Similarly, if you examine the Universe, and the amazing things in it, such as living things, you find such complexity that it would seem that it must have been made so. Purely random process could not have generated the incredible complexity of a microbe. Let alone human beings, and the Universe. Even if the Universe was designed by a God there is no way to know if this god endorses any particular religion, or it any of the characteristics assigned to it by that or any other religion-such as requiring us to worship and price it. If I created some artificial universe, say a computer simulation- why ever would I want my little forms to worship me? Where as in the concept of religion Heaven for the chosen few, and Hell for the majority of human kind. Why should billons of souls suffer eternal torment who never even heard of that particular god, or for having thought deeply and having concluded, as rationally as they could, ... Free Essays on The Star Free Essays on The Star â€Å"The Star†. â€Å"The universe has no purpose and no plan that since a hundred suns explode every year in our galaxy, at this very moment some race is dying in the depths of the space. Whether that race done good or evil during its lifetime will make no difference in the end: there is no divine justice, for there is no God.† I would love to believe that when I die I will live again, that some part of e will continue. Bu as much as I want to believe that, I know of nothing to suggest that it is more than wishful thinking. Of various arguments made for the existence of a supreme being, there’s only one that I think deserves serious attention. It’s called â€Å"The Argument from Design†, and basically runs like this: If you examine a watch, you would be very likely to conclude that somebody made it, because it is such a complex object. It would seem to be very unreasonable to consider that it could have happened by any conceivable kind of chance or event: an intelligent kind of being must have made it. Similarly, if you examine the Universe, and the amazing things in it, such as living things, you find such complexity that it would seem that it must have been made so. Purely random process could not have generated the incredible complexity of a microbe. Let alone human beings, and the Universe. Even if the Universe was designed by a God there is no way to know if this god endorses any particular religion, or it any of the characteristics assigned to it by that or any other religion-such as requiring us to worship and price it. If I created some artificial universe, say a computer simulation- why ever would I want my little forms to worship me? Where as in the concept of religion Heaven for the chosen few, and Hell for the majority of human kind. Why should billons of souls suffer eternal torment who never even heard of that particular god, or for having thought deeply and having concluded, as rationally as they could, ...

Monday, November 4, 2019

'Using a case study approach, critically appraise and evaluate Essay

'Using a case study approach, critically appraise and evaluate the nature of therapeutic interventions, in the management of a client's underlying condition or presenting symptom(s)' - Essay Example It is evident that owing to the busy schedule of individuals, people become unable to take care of themselves that can influence their health in a negative manner altogether (Suthakaran & Adithan, n.d.). Notably, as per the provided case, Mark is a patient who has been admitted to acute ward owing to his sudden collapse. Upon analysis of his past medical analysis, he was seen to be suffering from depression and anxiety, for which he chose pharmacological intervention over psychological treatment. Contextually, extensive secondary research study has been conducted for the research in depth where information will be collected from journals, literatures and research articles. The primary aim of the intervention includes identifying the potential benefits of therapeutic interventions with the combination of pharmacological and psychological interventions. As per the provided case study, an individual male at the age of 28 was admitted to acute ward after a sudden collapse at home. He was believed to be under the influence of extreme work pressure owing to which he developed an extreme level of stress. Past medical reports of the patient suggested that he was suffering from anxiety disorder and depression but was reluctant towards visiting psychologist. During the treatment of Mark in Acute ward, he showed negligible signs of any depression and anxiety despite of the aspect that he did not get any help from psychologists or any other healthcare professional in the past. He was in constant intake of Citalopram 40 mg on a daily basis. Correspondingly, it is believed that the patient and his symptoms regarding anxiety can be managed with the help of therapeutic intervention. Various noteworthy developments have been observed in the domain of nursing over the years. The profession have become one of the most prominent parts within the healthcare domain since

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Role Models Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Role Models - Essay Example â€Å"Role models demonstrate their commitment to a desired goal and are willing to invest the necessary time and effort to achieve success† (Silver). â€Å"In order for role models to be influential, they must show respect for others† (Silver). â€Å"Role models inspire other with an upbeat, optimistic outlook on life† (Silver). Summary of the article-The article is by Rebecca Morrison who claims that individuals are still susceptible to the influence of others, and especially their friends regardless of their age, strength, independence, or centeredness. The influence of others comes in various forms and can be specific, general, or indirect. Occasional and small negative habits viewed in one’s friend can erode and become sustained in the individual’s life too. It is hard for an individual to recognize that his or her friend is the one negatively impacting their life as they care about them. For one to understand the impact of negative friendship in their life, they need to step back and have a look at their actions and analyze how their life has been impacted negatively. It is possible to make positive change after identifying the negative impact. The changes that need to be made may either be dramatic or simple adjustment. Main ideas- friends with negative habits are capable of influencing one’s life. For one to understand the negative influence a relationship has on them, they need to step back and analyze. If negative behavior is key to the sustainability of a friendship, there is need for the friendship to end for one to lead a healthy life. Additional notes: the author suggests that there is need to evaluate the impact that friendships have own one’s individual behavior. If the influence is negative, there is need to undertake some changes for the benefit of the individual’s life. Summary of the article- the article is written by Susan Krauss Whitbourne. The article