Tuesday, September 17, 2019

11th and 12th section review

What was America's first major industry? In what region of the nation did it center? Lowell, Massachusetts(Northeast). Textiles became America's first major industry. 2. Name three of this era's important inventors and their respective inventions. John Deere perfected the plow. Cyrus McCormick, in 1834, received a patent for a reaping machine, a horse-drawn device that allowed one man to cut and stack ten to twelve acres of grain in a single day. Samuel Colt made his mark on the firearms industry.He patented and manufactured a â€Å"six-shooter,† a pistol with a revolving cylinder which allowed a user to fire six times before reloading. . Why was the discovery of anthracite coal in western Pennsylvania important? American farm production grew at a tremendous rate. In 1789, farmers had generally eked out only enough to feed their own families. But by 1861, the United States was producing nearly $2 billion worth of agricultural products each year. 4. How did the invention of the cotton gin increase the differences between the South and the rest of the nation?The growth of the cotton kingdom, however, widened the gap between the South on the one hand and the North and the West on the other. Cotton growing, for one thing, revitalized slavery. In 1790, slavery had seemed an increasingly unprofitable and dying institution. With the advent of the cotton gin, however, many planters thought that slavery was necessary again. 1. Name two methods of surfacing roads in the nineteenth century. Corduroy roads and toll roads 2. What event marked the beginning of the canal era?The canal era began in 1817, when New York, at the urging of Governor DeWitt Clinton, began building a canal from Albany to Lake Erie. 3. What was America's most important method of transportation by 1861? The clipper ship 4. What was the first economically successful railroad in America? Who designed its first steam engine? Baltimore & Ohio (B & O) Railroad and Peter Cooper 5. What system of carry ing mail across the continent began in 1860? What invention put it out of business? Semaphore and Telegraph 1 . What was the most controversial reform movement of the first half of the nineteenth century?Who was its most important leader? Without doubt the most controversial reform movement in the first half of the nineteenth century was abolitionism, the movement to eliminate slavery and William Lloyd Garrison. 2. What were the two important trends in American education in the early 1800s? Two important trends developed in the reform of American education during this period: the growth of both public education and teacher education. Most schooling since colonial days had been a private affair. 3. What is the difference between temperance and Prohibition?Reformers eventually replaced their call for temperance, or moderate drinking, with a call for the outright prohibition, or banning, of the sale and consumption of alcohol. 4. How did utopian reformers differ from other reformers? M ost reformers focused on a single major problem in society, such as prison reform r alcohol, and aimed at eliminating the problem throughout society. Utopian reformers, on the other hand, sought to establish small, perfect communities that would serve as models tor the retorm ot society at large.A utopia is an ideally perfect place. 5. Which authors defended romanticism's idea that man is basically good? Which authors denied this idea? 6. How did the Journalistic approach of the New York Sun differ from that of the New York Tribune? He Sun contained sensational accounts of murders, scandals, and other lurid events to appeal to the baser tastes of readers. The Tribune, edited by Horace Greeley, supported reform fforts and attempted to educate and uplift its readers.The two approaches proved equally successful, and both the Sun and the Tribune attracted readers even outside of New York. 1 . Why did western Pennsylvania become an early center of American heavy industry? Guns and patent s 2. How did reform movements affect the American public during the first half of the nineteenth century? More religion groups 3. During the Second Great Awakening, which were more emotional, the revivals in the East or the revivals in the West? In which region did the revivals center in the schools and churches? East and Northeast

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